Sukma Direja, Diah Widyawati



The existence of young children is estimated to increase the reservation wages of a mother, this can reduce the possibility of their work participation in entering the labor market. This study aims to determine the effect of childcare price on the work participation of women who are married in Indonesia. Estimation of labor participation in this study uses a bivariate probit model in which
decisions on work decisions are taken simultaneously with decisions on the choice of care type for women who are married. Because not all mothers in the sample work and use paid childcare, childcare wages and prices are estimated for all mothers. To overcome the sample selection bias, the two-stage Heckman method was used. The results of this study indicate that the price of
childcare negatively affects the work participation of married women. Which means that if there is an increase in the price of caring a child, it will reduce the work participation of married women.

Kata Kunci: Partisipasi kerja wanita, harga mengasuh anak

Full Text:



Blau, D. M., & Robins, P. K. (1988). Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 70 (3), 374–381.

Blundell, R., Duncan, A., McCrae, J., & Meghir, C. (2000). The Labour Market Impact of the Working Families Tax Credit. Fiscal Studies, 21 (1), 75–104.

Boca, D. Del. (2015). Child Care Arrangements and Labor Supply Child Care Arrangements and Labor, (January).

Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Liu, Amy; Mitchell, D. (1999). Reassessing The Role of Child Care Costs in The Work And Care of Australian Families (No. 409). Connelly, R. (1992). The Effect of Child Care Costs on Married Women’s Labor Force Participation. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 74 (1), 83–90.

Doiron, Denise and Kalb, G. (2005). Effects of Child Care Demands and Policies on Household Labour Supply in Australia. The Australian Economic Review, 81(254), 215–236.

GAO. (1994). Child Care: Child Care Subsidies Increase Likelihood That Low- Income Mothers Will Work, (December), 30.

Harsoyo, A. (2016). Pengaruh Fertilitas Terhadap Partisipasi Tenaga Kerja

Perempuan. Universitas Gajah Mada.

Heckman, J. J. (1974). Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women’s Work Effort Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women’s Work Effort (Vol. 82).

Lundin, et al (2008). How Far can Reduced Childcare Price Push Female Labour Supply?. Labour Economics 15, 647-659.

Powell, L. (1997). The Impact of Child Care Costs on the Labour Supply of

Married Mothers : Evidence from Canada. The Canadian Journal of

Economics, 30 (3), 577–594.

Presser, B Harriet; Baldwin, W. (1980). Child Care as a Constraint on

Employment : Prevalence, Correlates, and Bearing on the Work and Fertility Nexus. American Journal of Sociology, 85 (5), 1202–1213.

Priebe, J. (2010). Child Costs and the Causal Effect of Fertility on Female Labor Supply: An investigation for Indonesia 1993-2008, (October), 1–40.

Ribar, D. C. (1992). Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women :

Reduced Form, 27 (1), 134–165.

Ribar, D. C. (1995). A Structural Model of Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women. Journal of Labor Economics, 13 (3), 40.

Van Gameren, E., & Ooms, I. (2009). Childcare and Labor Force Participation in The Netherlands: The Importance of Attitudes and Opinions. Review of Economics of The Household , 7 (4), 395–421.

Viitanen, T. K. (2005). Costs of Child Care and Female Employment in the UK. Labour, 19 (2005), 149–170.

Wetzels, Cecile.(2005). Supply and Price of Childcare and Female Labour Force Participation in The Netherlands. Labour, 19 (2005).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact Person:

Dr. Sugeng Setyadi, S.E.,M.Si

Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi Pembangunan

Fakultas Ekonomi Dan Bisnis Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Jl. Raya Jakarta KM. 04, Pakupatan, Serang, Banten, Indonesia, Kota Serang, 42117, Telp. (0254) 280330

Phone: 083812848080