The Comparison of Adjective in Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese Languages: a Syntactic Typology Analysis

Tri Pujiati

Abstract


The main focus of this study is to describe the order of degree word and adjective (AdjDeg) or (DegAdj) in three languages; Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. Specifically, the study looks at the similarities and differences of typological syntactic features in three languages. This research used descriptive qualitative research by using data which belong to Austronesian language families. The results showed that (1) the similarities and differences of the order of modifying phrase in Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese which have different features in order of word degree and adjective, some of the compositions are (AdjDeg), or (DegAdj), and both of them; (2) the similarities at the level of comparison, the composition that often occur is ‘lebih + adjective+ dari’ in  Indonesian language, ‘luweh + adjective + soko’ in Javanese language, or ‘leuwih + adjective + ti’ in Sundanese language; (3) at the level of superlative, the similarities of order of degree word in Indonesian language is ‘paling + adjective’, Javanese is ‘subject + paleng+ adjective + soko + object’ , Sundanese is ‘subject + pohara + adjective + na + ti + object. The difference, In Indonesian ‘Subject + ter + adjective, Javanese language ‘subject + paleng + adjective’, Sundanese language, ‘subject +pang + adjective + na’; (4) On equative level, the similarities of equative, Indonesian language is ‘Subject + sama + Adjective + nya’, Javanese language, ‘subject + podho + adjective + e’, Sundanese is ‘subject + sarua + adjective + na’. The differences, Indonesian language, ‘Subject + Se + adjective’, Javanese language, ‘subject + adjective + e + podho’, Sundanese ‘subject + adjective + na +  sarua’. This research can be used as a reference in advanced research related to the typology in order of degree word and adjective with data from different language in Indonesian archipelago.

 

Keywords : Syntactic Typology, Comparative, Superlative, and Equative


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alwi, Hasan et.al..2003. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 2003.

Artawa, Ketut. 1998. Bahasa Bali: Sebuah Kajian Tipologi Sintaksis. Jurnal Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia: Jakarta

Budiarta, I Wayan. 2013. Tipologi Bahasa Kemak. Bali: Universitas Udayana.

Chaer, Abdul. 2009. Sintaksis Bahasa Indonesia, Pendekatan Proses. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Comrie, Bernard. 1989. Language Universals and Linguistics Typology. Great Britain: The University of Chicago Press.

Djajasudarma, T. Fatimah, et.al. 1994. Tata Bahasa Acuan Bahasa Sunda. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Dryer, M.S. 1989. Article-Noun Order. In Papers from 25th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Part One: The General Session, pp 83-97.

Dryer, M.S. 1989. Discourse-Governed Word Order and Word Order Typology. Belgian Journal of Linguistics. Universals of Language.

Dryer, M.S. The Evidence for Word Order Correlations.Linguistic Typology 15 (2011), 335–380 1430–0532/2011/015-0335. DOI 10.1515/LITY.2011.024

Dryer, M.S. Matthew S. 1991. SVO Languages and the OV:VO Typology. Journal of Linguistics 27: 443-482

Dryer, M. S. 1992. The Greenbergian word order correlations. Language 68, 81-138.

__________________. Order of Degree Word and Adjective. Wals Online Chaper 91.

__________________. Order of Adjective and Noun. Wals Onlne. Chapter 87

Finoza, Lamuddin. (2013). Komposisi Bahasa Indonesia: Untuk Mahasiswa Nonjurusan Bahasa. Jakarta: Diksi Insan Mulia.

Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English, a practical reference guide. New Jersey: Prentice hall.

Hasibuan, Nurainun. Proses Tipologi Bahasa Mandailing. Telangkai Bahasa dan Sastra, Juli 2014, 110-119

Hs., Widjono. 2012. Bahasa Indonesia Mata Kuliah Pengembangan Kepribadian di Perguruan Tinggi. Jakarta: PT Grasindo.

Kurniawan, E. On the Typology of Determiner Phrase Structure in Indonesian and Javanese Languages. Bahastra, Volume XXVII, Nomor 1, Oktober 2012.

Mallison, G. Blake, B.J. 1981. Language Typology. Cross-Linguistics Studies in Syntax. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company.

Moravcsik, Edith A. 2013. Introducing Language Typology. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Prafantya, Beina. Perbandingan Tingkat Komparatif dan Superlatif Adjektiva dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia (Kajian Linguistik Kontrastif). Jurnal Sosioteknologi Edisi 24 Tahun 10, Desember 2011.

Pusat Bahasa. 2005. Pedoman Umum Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia yang Disempurnakan. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Sargeant, Howard. 2007. Basic English Grammar for English Language Learners. USA: Saddleback Educational Publisihing.

Sneddon, James Neil. 1996. Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar. New York: Routledge.

Surbakti, Ernawati Br. 2012. Tipologi Sintaksis Bahasa Karo. Telangkai Bahasa dan Sastra Januari Program Studi Linguistik S.Ps USU, ISSN 1978-826.

Thomson A.J. and Martinet A.V.. A. 1986. Practical English Grammar, fourth editition. Hongkong: Oxford University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30870/jels.v2i2.2244

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
Journal of English Language Studies [JELS] is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright @ Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa [Untirta]. All rights reserved.  p-ISSN: 2527-7022 |  e-ISSN: 2541-5131



View My Stats