Implicit Stances Taken by ABC and BBC towards Indonesia Presidential Election: CDA Perspectives

Ahmad Idris Asmaradhani


In linguistics, stance can be defined as linguistic mechanism used by the speakers/writers to express the feelings, assessments, attitudes, judgments, or commitments about the proposition. This paper is intended to analyze some statements, as the linguistic mechanism, used by ABC and BBC in conveying their stances towards Indonesia Presidential Election. It explores the implicit stances through the uses of lexical choices; nominalization; passivization; and over completeness in the editorials related to (1) the contenders in the election, (2) the uniqueness of the election, (3) the preliminary results: what the contenders said, and (4) issues surrounding the election. Applying van Dijk’s models of CDA to examine the propositions representing the four points in editorials during weeks before and after the election date, analysis was carried out at the selected statements in the texts of their online news. The results showed that the statements constructed by ABC and BBC in the editorials are implicitly taking stances towards a particular side. On the whole, however, most of the statements can be seen as neutral. In terms of van Dijk’s ‘ideological square’ some linguistic features used by ABC and BBC under analyses are dichotomizing one contender into ‘Us’ while the other into ‘Them’ and on the whole as neutral. Based on the novelty of the analysis, prospects for future researches are suggested

Full Text:



A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th Ed.). 2008. UK: Blackwell Publishing.

ABC. Available at: results-released-president-joko-widodo-wins/11132840. (Accessed 15 July 2019f).

ABC. Available at: likely-plagued-by-vote-buying/10826922. (Accessed 15 July 2019e).

ABC. Available at: remand-gangs-back- their-candidates/10985156. (Accessed 15 July 2019a).

ABC. Available at: president joko-widodo-on-track-for-election-victory/11027178. (Accessed 15 July 2019c).

ABC. Available at: election/11022890. (Accessed 15 July 2019b).

ABC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019d).

ABC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019h).

ABC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019g).

Abdullah, F.S. (2014). “Mass Media Discourse: A Critical Analysis Research Agenda”. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 22 (S): 1 - 16 (2014). ISSN: 0128-7702. Selangor: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Anshori, S. and Sumarlam. (2019). “Critical Discourse Analysis of Online Media News about The Potential of Conflict of Presidential Election 2019”. Journal of Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. Vol. 280. PP. 318-386. Atlantis Press.

Ayoola, K. A. (2016). “A Critical Discourse Analysis of Stance Expressions in Crisis Reportage” In Language, Context and Society: A Festschrift for Wale Adegbite. Pp. 289-307. By: Odebunmi and Ayoola (Eds.). Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo University Press.

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019g).

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019a).

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019b).

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019c).

BBC. Available at: 15 July 2019d).

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019e).

BBC. Available at: (Accessed 15 July 2019f).

Billig, M. (2008). “The Language of Critical Discourse Analysis: The Case of Nominalization”. Discourse & Society. Vol. 19, 6: pp. 783-800.

Budiharto, W. and Meiliana. (2018). “Prediction and Analysis of Indonesia Presidential Election from Twitter Using Sentiment Analysis”. Journal of Big Data. 5:51. Springer. DOI:

Chatam House. Available at: (Accessed 17 July 2019).

Council on Foreign Relations. Available at: (Accessed 25 July 2019).

Cruse, A. (2006). A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Ltd.

Cunningham, S. and Turner, G. (1997). The Media in Australia: Industries, Texts, Audiences (2nd Ed.). Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, NSW

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. London: Longman.

Ferguson, R. (1998). Representing Race: Ideology, Identity and the Media. London: Arnold Publishers.

Foreign Policy Research Institute. Available at: (Accessed 17 July 2019).

Fowler, R. (1991). Language and the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge.

Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing Consent. New York: Pantheon Books.

Irawanto, B. (2019). Making It Personal: The Campaign Battle on Social Media in Indonesia’s 2019 Presidential Election. Singapore: ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.

Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (3rd Ed.). 2002. UK: Pearson Education Limited.

Mietzner, M. (2015). Reinventing Asian Populism: Jokowi’s Rise, Democracy, and Political Contestation in Indonesia. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Nurjamin, L.R. and Saifullah, A.R. (2019). “How is Indonesian Presidential Election Represented in Online Newspapers?” Journal of Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. DOI:

Putra, H.P. and Triono, S. (2018). “Discourse Analysis on Kompas.Com News: Gerakan #2019 Ganti Presiden”. LEKSEMA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra. Vol. 3 No. 2. Juli-Desember, 2018.

Ramanathan, R. and Hoon, T.B. (2015). “Application of Critical Discourse Analysis in Media Discourse Studies”. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 21(2): 57 – 68

Reiter, E. and Sripada, S. (2002). “Squibs and Discussions: Human Variation and Lexical Choice”. Computational Linguistics. Vol. 28, No. 4. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.

Sykes, M. (1985). “Discrimination in Discourse”. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Handbook of Discourse Analysis (Vol. 4, pp. 83-101). Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.

The Jakarta Post. Available at: 2019/04/20/insight- the-effects-of-our-personalized-election.html. (Accessed: 25 July 2019.

The New Lens. Available at: (Accessed: 25 July 2019).

Van Dijk, T.A. (1998). Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: SAGE.

Van Dijk, T.A. (2000). Ideology and Discourse: A multidisciplinary Introduction. Barcelona: Pompeu Fabra University.

Van Dijk, T.A. (2006). “Politics, Ideology, and Discourse”. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Elsevier Ltd.

Van Dijk, T.A. (2009). “Critical Discourse Studies: A Sociocognitive Approach”. In Wodak, R. & Meyer, M. (Eds.). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 62-85). London: SAGE.

White, P.R.R. (2006). “Evaluative Semantics and Ideological Positioning in Journalistic Discourse: A New Framework for Analysis” pp. 37-69. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wilkins, K. G. (1997). Middle Eastern Women in Western Eyes. London: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc.

Xie, Q. (2018). “Critical Discourse Analysis of News Discourse”. ISSN 1799-2591. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 399-403, April 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Journal of English Language Studies [JELS] is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright @ Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa [Untirta]. All rights reserved.  p-ISSN: 2527-7022 |  e-ISSN: 2541-5131

View My Stats