Tinjauan Teoritis pada Pelaksanaan Prosedur Konstruksi Sistem Pembumian Model Grid di Gardu Induk

Arief Goeritno


Telah dilakukan tinjauan teoritis pelaksanaan untuk perolehan prosedur konstruksi terhadap sistem pembumian model grid di gardu induk. Prosedur konstruksi didasarkan kepada sejumlah standar Internasional dan nasional, melalui sejumlah tujuan berupa (a) penetapan pemilihan konduktor dan sambungan; (b) penentuan kondisi tanah; (c) perhitungan nilai resistans bumi pada sistem pembumian; (d) perhitungan arus grid maksimum; dan (e) perhitungan tegangan mesh dan langkah, dan (f) diagram alir prosedur pelaksanaan konstruksi.  Pemilihan konduktor dan sambungan, meliputi (i) material dan ukuran konduktor dan (ii) sambungan. Penentuan kondisi tanah, meliputi struktur, resistivitas, dan model tanah. Perhitungan nilai resistans bumi pada sistem pembumian model grid didasarkan kepada jumlah lapisan dan keseragaman tanah. Perhitungan arus grid maksimum, meliputi (i) penentuan lokasi dan jenis gangguan terburuk, (ii) penghitungan faktor pembagi arus gangguan, (iii) penghitungan faktor penurunan, dan (iv) penentuan faktor koreksi proyeksi. Perhitungan tegangan mesh dan langkah, meliputi (i) tegangan mesh (mesh voltage) dan (ii) tegangan langkah (step voltage), (iii) batasan-batasan untuk tegangan mesh dan langkah, dan (iv) panjang minimum konduktor tertanam. Diagram alir pelaksanaan prosedur konstruksi sistem pembumian model grid merupakan urutan kriteria parameter-parameter yang wajib dipenuhi untuk perolehan sistem pengaman yang efisien, tetapi aman bagi manusia sesuai standard IEEE.

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