The Use of Indirect Corrective Feedback to Eliminate the Grammatical Errors in Students’ Writing

Nia Pujiawati


This study aims to determine how the benefits of Indirect Corrective Feedback to improve students' ability in reducing the grammatical errors in their writings. To answer the formulation of this problem, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative design. The study included nine students of English Education Department, batch 2012 as participants. The research data was obtained from the student writings of a descriptive paragraph. The student writings were then analyzed to prove how Indirect Corrective Feedback is used during the study. The results of this study indicate that the number of grammatical errors of all participants decreased after they received the Indirect Corrective Feedback from the lecturer.

Keywords: indirect corrective feedback, grammatical errors, writing

Full Text:



Chandler, J. 2003. The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3), 267–296.

Ellis, R. 2008. A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 28(2), 97- 107.

Ferris, D. R. 1995. Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 33–48.

Ferris, D. R. 2003. Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ghandi, M., & Maghsoudi, M. 2014. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on Iranian EFL Learners’ Spelling Errors. English Language Teaching; Vol. 7, No. 8

Haris, J. 1993. Introducing Writing. London: Penguin.

Lalande, J. F. 1982. Reducing composition errors: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal, 66(2), 140–149.

Merril, D. 2002. Instructional strategies and learning style: which takes precedence? In R.A. Reiser & J.V. Dempsey (Eds), Trend and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddler River, Nj: Pearson Education Inc.

Rao, Z. 2002. Chinese students’ perceptions of communicative and non-communicative activities in the EFL classroom. System, 30 (1), 85-105.

Richard, J., & Renandya, W. 2002. Methodology in language teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sivaji, K. 2012. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Correction Feedback on the Grammatical Accuracy of ESL Writing of Undergraduates. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8, 78-94.

Wigati, F. 2003. The Students’ problems in writing descriptive essay across different levels (A case study in one university in karawang). Unpublished Thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Journal of English Language Studies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright @ 2021 Journal of English Language Studies.

View My Stats