Promoting Language Learning Through “Transdicto”: An Alternative Design for ER+ Program

Endang Setyaningsih, Kristiandi Kristiandi, Hasan Zainnuri, Teguh Sarosa


This paper aims to answer two research questions: (1) What design of an Extensive Reading program can be developed in the EFL setting with time constraints and (2) How do students respond to the design implementation. To achieve these goals, the study used Design-Based Research and, in the practice, it was carried out in 3 major phases. The initial phase was the analysis of practical problems. The second phase was literature research to inform the planning and development of the prototype design and the last phase was the implementation and reflection of the implementation of the design. The study was carried out in one semester in an English Education Department of a university in Indonesia. The study results in an alternative design to an ER+ program that is called Transdicto. Transdicto is conducted in five major steps: (1) extensive reading/ listening, (2) note-taking, (3) exploring, (4) contextualizing, and (5) transforming. Observation and interview revealed that the students responded well to Transdicto; they found the steps of the activity were relatively easy to follow, useful, and engaging

Full Text:



Anandari, C.L. and Iswandari, Y.A. (2019). Extensive reading in Indonesian schools: A successful story. TEFLIN Journal Vol 30 No 2 pp. 137-152)

Bamford, J., and D, R.R (eds). (2004). Extensive reading activities for language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bomia, L., Beluzo, L., Demeester, D., Elander, K., Johnson, M., & Sheldon, B. (1997). "The impact of teaching strategies on intrinsic motivation." Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. p. 294

Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. (2003). Educational research: An introduction (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Boutorwick, T.J., Macalister, J., Elgort, I. (2019). “Two approaches to extensive reading and theor effects on L2 vocabulary development.” Reading in a Foreign Language 31(2) pp. 150-172

Chapman, E. (2003) "Assessing student engagement rates," ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation. ERIC identifier: ED482269

Day, R. (2011). A review of the 10 ER principles and ER programs. Paper presented at the First Extensive Reading World Congress, Kyoto, Japan.

_______. (2015). “Extending extensive reading”. Reading in a Foreign Language 27 (2) pp.294-301

Ewert, D. (2017). “Getting ER into the curriculum: No more excuses!” The Catesol Journal. Vol 29 No 2. pp 5-20

Grabe, W. (2001). Reading-writing relations: Theoretical perspectives and instructional practices. In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.), Linking literacies: Perspectives on L2 reading-writing connections (pp. 15–47). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hirvela, A. (2004). Connecting reading & writing in second language writing instruction. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Krashen, S.D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Pergamon Press Inc

____________ (1989) “We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis”. Modern Language Journal 73, 440-464.

______________ (1993). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited

______________ (2010). “Is light reading enough to fully acquire academic language? The bridge hypothesis” Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching 6 (1) pp.30-38

_______________ (2020a). “Self-Selected Fiction: The Path to Academic Success?”CATESOL Newsletter, April, 2020, pp. 1-2.”

___________(2020b). Aesthetic reading: Efficient Enough”. Journal of English Language Teaching 62 (2): 3-4. 2020.

Malloy, J.A., Parsons, S.A., Parsons, A.W. (2013). “Methods for evaluating engagement as a fluid construct.” In Dunstan, Pamela J, Heather McCrea-Andrews, and Literacy Research Association. 62nd Yearbook of the Literacy Research Association. Altamonte Springs, Florida: Literacy Research Association, Inc., 2013.

Mart, C. T.. (2015). “Combining Extensive and Intensive Reading to Reinforce Language Learning”. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 5(4), pp. 85-90.

McLean, S, and Rouault. G. (2017). “The effectiveness and efficiency of extensive reading at developing reading rates. System, 70 (92), pp. 92-106

Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd edition). California: SAGE Publication

Myhill, D., Lines, H., and Jones, S. (2020). “Writing like a reader: developing metalinguistic understanding to support reading-writing connections”. In R. A. Alves, T. Limpo & R. Malatesha Joshi (Eds), Reading-writing connections: Towards integrative literacy science. (pp. 107-122). Springer, Cham.

Nakanishi, T., and Ueda, A. (2011). “Extensive reading and the effect of shadowing”. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23 (1) pp. 1-16

Park, J. (2016). “Integrating reading and writing through extensive reading.” ELT Journal 70 (3) pp. 287-295

Pigada, M. and Scmitt, N. (2006). “Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study” Reading in a Foreign Language 18(1). Retrieved from on Sept 1 in Sept. 2020

Reeves, T.C. (2006). “Design research from a technology perspective”. In J. van den Akker, K. Gravemeijer, S. McKenney & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Educational design research (pp. 52-66). London: Routledge.

Renandya, W.A. (2009). “The power of extensive reading”. RELC Journal Vol 38 No 2. pp.133-149

_______________ (2020). Dictogloss: Dicatation with a twist. Available at

Robb, T and Kano, M. (2013). Effective extensive reading outside the classroom: A large-scale experiment” Reading in a Foreign Language, 25.pp.234-247

Schmidt, R.W. (1990). “The role of consciousness in second language learning”. Applied Linguistics, 11 (2), pp. 129-158

Sedita, J. (2005). “Effective vocabulary instruction” Insights on Learning Disabilities, 2 (1), pp 33-45.

Song, M. (2020). “The impact of extensive reading on EFL primary school students' Vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension”. Proceedings of the Fifth Extensive Reading World Congress. pp.60-69

Suk, N. (2016). “The effects of extensive reading on reading comprehension, reading rate, and vocabulary acquisition.” Reading Research Quarterly, 52 (1) pp. 73-89

Swain, M. (1995). “Three functions of output in second language learning”. In Cook, G. and Seidelhofer, B. (Eds.) Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in Honor of H.G. Widdowson, pp. 125-144. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Teng, F. (2015). “The effectiveness of extensive reading on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning: Incidental versus intentional learning. Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal 9 (1) pp. 66-80

The University of Georgia (UGA). (2012). The Power of reading by Stephen Krashen. [video].

Wang, Y-H. “Incidental vocabulary learning through extensive reading: A case of lower-level EFL Taiwanese learners”. The Journal of ASIA TEFL, 10(3) pp. 59-80

Waring, R. and Husna, N. (2019). “Expectations and experiences of Indonesian teachers whp have, and habe not, done extensive reading”. TEFLIN Journal Vo.l 30 no 2. pp 153-170

Warring, R. and Nation, I.S.P. (2004). “Second language reading and incidental vocabulary learning” Angles on the English Speaking World, 4, pp. 97-110

Yanto, E.S., Saefullah, H., Kwary, D.A. (2020). “Implementing a literary text extensive reading program through Reading Logs”. TQR Vol 25 No 5



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Journal of English Language Studies [JELS] is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright @ Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa [Untirta]. All rights reserved.  p-ISSN: 2527-7022 |  e-ISSN: 2541-5131

View My Stats