Elite and Empowerment of Local Communities: The Dilemma Between Participation and Mobilization in The Era of Democracy

Hanantyo Sri Nugroho, Desiana Rizka Fimmastuti


This article discusses the role of local elites in stimulating community participation in various development programs. As is well known, the Serut Hamlet area in Bantul Regency is fostered by private institutions, while the Blue Lagoon Tourism Village is a village that grows for the benefit of the community's economy. This is where the challenge of empowerment will emerge, namely the many activities that only end in a momentary 'project'. By using a qualitative approach in the form of case studies, our study shows that the contribution of the elite in the empowerment process can be said to be quite large. As it is known, the formal elite, in this case the head of the tourism village management and the hamlet head, are the owners of sufficient power to open and close access to empowerment activities. This is reinforced by the ability of the elite to "care for" the sustainability of activities through various means, namely optimization and mobilization. This elite ability is what makes it a determining factor in the success of community empowerment projects.


elites, community empowerment, participation, mobilization

Full Text:

249-265 PDF


Alsop, R. (2005). Power, Rights, and Poverty: The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-6310-2

Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225

Bandiera, O., & Levy, G. (2011). Diversity and the power of the elites in democratic societies: Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of Public Economics, 95(11–12), 1322–1330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.04.002

Bayo, L. N., Santoso, P., & Samadhi, W. P. (Eds.). (2018). Rezim Lokal di Indonesia: Memaknai Ulang Demokrasi Kita. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Beath, A., BenYishay, A., d’Adda, G., Grosjean, P., & Weber, R. A. (2018). Can vouchers reduce elite capture of local development projects? Experimental evidence from the Solomon Islands. Journal of Public Economics, 160(February), 117–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.02.011

Bottomore, T. B. (2006). Elite dan Masyarakat. Akbar Tandjung Institute.

Bourgeois, R., Penunia, E., Bisht, S., & Boruk, D. (2017). Technological Forecasting & Social Change Foresight for all : Co-elaborative scenario building and empowerment. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, April, 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.04.018

Dongier, P., Domelen, J. Van, Ostrom, E., Ryan, A., Wakeman, W., Bebbington, A., Alkire, S., Esmail, T., & Polski, M. (2003). Community-Driven Development Philippe. In Vol.1 - Core Techniques and Cross-Cutting Issues (Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp. 27–58). World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCDD/Resources/CDDPRSP.pdf

Erb, M., Sulistiyanto, P., & Faucher, C. (2013). Regionalism in post-Suharto Indonesia. In Regionalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203698723

Fathoni, H. S., Setyowati, A. B., & Prest, J. (2021). Is community renewable energy always just? Examining energy injustices and inequalities in rural Indonesia. Energy Research and Social Science, 71(May 2020), 101825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101825

Fritzen, S. A. (2007). Can the Design of Community-Driven Development Reduce the Risk of Elite Capture? Evidence from Indonesia. World Development, 35(8), 1359–1375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.05.001

García-López, G. A. (2019). Rethinking elite persistence in neoliberalism: Foresters and techno-bureaucratic logics in Mexico’s community forestry. World Development, 120, 169–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.03.018

Geenen, S., & Cuvelier, J. (2018). The Extractive Industries and Society Local elites ’ extraversion and repositioning : Continuities and changes in Congo ’ s mineral production networks. The Extractive Industries and Society, July, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2018.10.013

Han, H., & Gao, Q. (2019). Community-based welfare targeting and political elite capture : Evidence from rural China. World Development, 115, 145–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.11.010

Haryanto. (2017). Elit, massa, dan kekuasaan : Suatu bahasan pengantar.

HRC. (2007). Pengembangan Kawasan SERUT.

Huntington, S. P., & Nelson, J. M. (1990). Partisipasi Politik di Negara Berkembang (S. Simamora (Ed.)). Rineka Cipta.

Jamil Gunawan. (2005). Desentralisasi, Globalisasi, dan Demokrasi Lokal. Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia.

Kaplan, H. B. (2010). Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer New York.

Kurniaty, R. (2014). Local Elites and Public Space Sustainability : the local elite roles in the presence and usage of public space in Malang Raya , Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20, 506–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.063

Li, D., Wang, W., & Liu, J. (2019). Grassroots VS elites: Which ones are better candidates for influence maximization in social networks? Neurocomputing, 358, 321–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2019.05.053

Liu, Z., Müller, M., Rommel, J., & Feng, S. (2016). Community-based agricultural land consolidation and local elites : Survey evidence from China. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.06.021

Marin, R. (2015). The local political elites in East-Central Europe : Between the legacy of the past and the decentralization of the present. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 183, 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.842

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Nakpodia, F., & Adegbite, E. (2017). Corporate governance and elites ☆. Accounting Forum, November, 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2017.11.002

Nisbett, M. (2017). Geoforum Empowering the empowered ? Slum tourism and the depoliticization of poverty. Geoforum, 85(February), 37–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.007

Sastroatmodjo, S. (1995). Perilaku Politik. Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (IKIP) Semarang Press.

Silver, C. (2005). Do the donors have it right? Decentralization and changing local governance in Indonesia. Advances in Spatial Science, 45, 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28351-X_7

Søholt, S., Stenbacka, S., & Nørgaard, H. (2018). Conditioned receptiveness : Nordic rural elite perceptions of immigrant contributions to local resilience ☆. Journal of Rural Studies, April, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.05.004

Sovacool, B. K. (2019). Energy Research & Social Science Elite power in low-carbon transitions : A critical and interdisciplinary review. Energy Research & Social Science, 57(December 2018), 101242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2019.101242

Wahid, A., Shakil, M., Bt, N., Talib, A., Ali, I., Tahir, M., Ali, F., & Qaiser, M. (2016). Barriers to empowerment : Assessment of community-led local development organizations in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, August, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.163

Wilfahrt, M. (2018). The politics of local government performance : Elite cohesion and cross-village constraints in decentralized Senegal. World Development, 103, 149–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.010

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1300/J145v03n03_07

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31506/jog.v5i2.8971


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Recent Issues

⟨Upcoming Issues⟩

Recent Issues

Volume 6, Issue 2: (2021)

 Volume 6, Issue 1: (2021)

 Volume 5, Issue 2: (2020)

Volume 5, Issue 1: (2020)

Volume 4, Issue 2 (2019)

                                                                                                                View My Stats
Creative Commons License

Journal of Governance is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2019 Journal of Governance. All rights reserved.